History of Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire was a Muslim dynasty that ruled India from the early 16th to the mid-19th century. The empire was founded in 1526 by Babur, a Chaghatai Turkic prince from Central Asia who was a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur. Babur established the Mughal Empire after defeating the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, in the Battle of Panipat. In following article, history of Mughal Empire is discussed briefly.

The Mughals were known for their cultural achievements and for the strong central government they established in India. They built a number of magnificent palaces and fortresses, as well as famous landmarks such as the Taj Mahal. They also encouraged the development of art, literature, and architecture, leading to a golden age of culture in India.


  • Babur was the founder and first emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He was a Chaghatai Turkic prince from Central Asia and a descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur. Babur was born in Fergana, a valley in present-day Uzbekistan, in 1483. He inherited the principality of Fergana from his father, and went on to capture Samarkand and Bukhara, two major cities in the region, by the time he was 12.
  • In 1524, Babur led an invasion of the Sultanate of Delhi in India, and defeated the Sultan Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat, thus founding the Mughal Empire in India. He established his capital in Agra, and went on to conquer much of northern and central India, as well as parts of modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • Babur was a patron of the arts, and he was interested in the study of history, literature, and culture. His memoirs, known as the Baburnama, is an important historical source on the Mughal Empire and 16th-century Central Asia and India. He ruled until 1530 and died in Agra, his death causeed by illness.


  • Humayun was the second Mughal emperor of India, succeeding his father Babur. He ruled from 1530 to 1540, and again from 1555 to 1556.
  • Humayun inherited the kingdom from his father babur but faced several challenges during his early reign. He faced rebellion from within the royal family, lost several territories to the powerful Sultanate of Gujarat and was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, who briefly took over the Mughal Empire in 1540 and Humayun was forced to flee to Persia.
  • During his exile, Humayun took shelter with the Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasp I and married his sister, Bega Begum. With the help of Persian military, Humayun was able to regain control of his kingdom in 1555 and re-established Mughal rule in India. However, his reign was brief and he died in 1556 in a tragic accident while climbing down the stairs of his library in Delhi. He fell from the top of a flight of steps leading to his library and died from the injuries he sustained.
  • Despite his short rule and the challenges he faced, Humayun played a significant role in laying the foundations for the Mughal Empire and paving the way for his son, Akbar, to become one of the greatest Mughal emperors.


  • Akbar, also known as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor of India, succeeding his father Humayun. He ruled from 1556 to 1605 and is widely regarded as one of the greatest Mughal emperors.
  • Akbar inherited a kingdom that was in disarray after his father’s death, and at a young age of 13 he had to face several challenges to regain control over the empire. He was able to secure his rule and expanded the Mughal Empire significantly during his reign, through a combination of military conquests and diplomacy. He conquered large parts of modern-day India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh, and his empire eventually became one of the largest and most powerful in the world.
  • Akbar was also known for his religious tolerance and his efforts to bring about a sense of unity among the diverse peoples of his empire. He abolished the discriminatory practices and taxes imposed on non-Muslims, and promoted a syncretic culture that brought together elements of different religions and cultures. He also established a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which blended elements of Islam, Hinduism, and Zoroastrianism, but this religion didn’t gain much acceptance.
  • Akbar was also a patron of the arts and sciences, and his court was a center of culture and learning. He established a number of institutions and programs to promote education, literature, and the arts, leading to a golden age of culture in India during his reign. He also built a number of magnificent palaces and forts, some of which still stand today as tourist attractions and UNESCO world heritage sites.


  • Jahangir was the fourth Mughal emperor of India, succeeding his father Akbar. He ruled from 1605 to 1627. He was known by the title Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi.
  • Jahangir was the eldest surviving son of Akbar and he was appointed as his father’s successor. During his reign, he expanded the empire and also made some territorial conquests. He also put effort to maintain the empire his father had built. He was known for his interest in art, literature and culture and his court was known for its cultural splendor and artistic achievements.
  • However, Jahangir also had to face several rebellions during his reign, including one led by his own son, Khusrau, who challenged his father’s authority. Jahangir was able to put down the rebellion, but it weakened the empire’s stability. He also struggled with addiction to alcohol and opium, which led to his health deteriorating in his later years.
  • In addition to his artistic patronage, he was known for his religious tolerance and for the progressive policies he implemented towards the Hindu population of the empire. He also encouraged the development of trade and industry and established a number of institutions to promote education and the arts. He also gave the British East India Company the right to establish a factory in Surat, which led to increased trade between the Mughal Empire and Europe.

Shah Jahan

  • Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal emperor of India, succeeding his father Jahangir. He ruled from 1628 to 1658.
  • Shah Jahan is perhaps best known for the construction of the Taj Mahal, which he built in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died in childbirth. This white marble mausoleum is widely regarded as one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. He also constructed other famous architectural monuments such as Red Fort, Jama Masjid, and many more.
  • During his reign, Shah Jahan expanded the empire and maintained its stability, He was also a patron of the arts and literature, and his court was known for its cultural splendor. He also had several campaigns to expand his empire, but also faced several rebellions, including one led by his own son Aurangzeb.
  • Shah Jahan was deposed by his son Aurangzeb in 1658 and was imprisoned in the Fort of Agra, where he spent the last eight years of his life until his death.
  • In addition to his architectural achievements, Shah Jahan is remembered for his policies promoting economic growth, such as encouraging the growth of trade, particularly with the British East India Company and for his patronage of the arts and literature. He is considered to be one of the most accomplished Mughal emperors in terms of cultural achievements and patronage of arts.


  • Aurangzeb, also known as Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor of India, succeeding his father Shah Jahan. He ruled from 1658 to 1707, and during his long reign, he expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest territorial extent.
  • Aurangzeb’s early years as emperor were marked by several military campaigns to expand the empire, during which he conquered several regional kingdoms and expanded the empire’s borders to include present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of southern India.
  • However, Aurangzeb’s reign is also known for the religious policies he implemented, specifically his persecution of non-Muslims. He imposed taxes on non-Muslims, destroyed Hindu temples and shrines and imposed strict Islamic laws. This led to widespread resentment among Hindus, Sikhs, and other religious groups, which contributed to the decline of the Mughal Empire.
  • In addition to these policies, Aurangzeb faced several rebellions during his reign, including those led by his own sons and brothers, which further weakened the empire. He also faced increased pressure from European powers such as the British and the French, who had established trading outposts on the Indian subcontinent.
  • Aurangzeb’s long and tyrannical rule marked the beginning of the end for the Mughal Empire. After his death, his empire faced a steady decline due to weak leadership, internal conflicts, and invasions by European powers. The empire officially came to an end with the War of Indian Independence in 1857.


During the 17th century, the Mughal Empire reached its height under the rule of emperors such as Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb. However, by the 18th century, the empire was in decline, as a result of internal conflicts, as well as invasions by European powers such as the British and the French. The British eventually defeated the Mughals and established British colonial rule in India. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, was exiled by the British in 1858, and the Mughal Empire officially came to an end.

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